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What is the cause of battery fire? The first domestically produced battery pack sensing and monitoring chip that can predict in advance.

What is the cause of battery fire? The first domestically produced battery pack sensing and monitoring chip that can predict in advance.

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  • Time of issue:2022-08-12
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(Summary description)The automotive electronic and electrical architecture is evolving towards intelligence and wireless. For automotive wireless sensors, the change lies in the transformation of the traditional distributed ECU architecture into a centralized computing center domain control mode based on wireless intelligent sensors, radar, and cameras. The traditional distributed ECU architecture has 70~100 ECUs in a single vehicle, with mechanical superposition of functions, low efficiency and poor interactivity.

What is the cause of battery fire? The first domestically produced battery pack sensing and monitoring chip that can predict in advance.

(Summary description)The automotive electronic and electrical architecture is evolving towards intelligence and wireless. For automotive wireless sensors, the change lies in the transformation of the traditional distributed ECU architecture into a centralized computing center domain control mode based on wireless intelligent sensors, radar, and cameras. The traditional distributed ECU architecture has 70~100 ECUs in a single vehicle, with mechanical superposition of functions, low efficiency and poor interactivity.

  • Categories:News
  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Time of issue:2022-08-12
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The automotive electronic and electrical architecture is evolving towards intelligence and wireless. For automotive wireless sensors, the change lies in the transformation of the traditional distributed ECU architecture into a centralized computing center domain control mode based on wireless intelligent sensors, radar, and cameras. The traditional distributed ECU architecture has 70~100 ECUs in a single vehicle, with mechanical superposition of functions, low efficiency and poor interactivity. The harness is 5 kilometers long. In the future, the centralized computing center will use the edge computing mode to process, calibrate and compensate the collected information in real time, which is a de ECU architecture. Due to the adoption of wireless communication mode and distributed architecture, the use of wiring harnesses has been greatly reduced. For example, Tesla, single car wiring harnesses are only 100 meters long. However, during this process, the adoption of wireless sensors has increased, from $44 per bike in the past to $105, indicating a promising future.

1. Thermal Safety of Lithium Batteries

The thermal safety of lithium batteries is a top priority for electric vehicles and energy storage systems. China has enforced a 5-minute warning for thermal runaway of battery packs since January 1, 2021. The battery pack sensing and monitoring chip can be regarded as the safety foundation of new energy vehicles. As for the domestic automotive wireless sensor chip industry, it is moving from domestic substitution to leading innovation.

In 2021, the global power battery market share of Chinese enterprises exceeded 50%, and China's new energy vehicle industry is also entering the market driven stage from policy subsidies. It is expected that the sales of new energy vehicles in China will exceed 10 million units by 2025. However, the current localization rate of automotive sensors is still less than 4%, which is accelerating the development of domestic import substitution and product innovation.

In the case of thermal runaway, various chemical reactions can occur inside the battery pack, causing abnormal pressure, temperature rise, aerosol release, etc., ultimately leading to a fire or even explosion of the battery pack. In 2021, Zoje Electronics launched its first domestically produced sensor monitoring chip SNP805 for new energy vehicle battery packs. By monitoring changes in pressure on new energy vehicle battery packs, it issued early warning messages to avoid life and property losses caused by battery pack fires.

For the safety of battery systems in new energy vehicles, the products launched by Zoje Electronics include BPS modules and BAS modules. The BPS module is based on MEMS Pressure and ASIC technology, achieving precise detection of environmental pressure; The BAS module is based on optical smoke detection and ASIC technology, achieving precise detection of environmental aerosol concentration.

The principle is that during the thermal runaway process of ternary lithium batteries, the positive electrode material will release oxygen, which oxidizes with the solvent to produce a large amount of gas and heat. In a short period of time, the pressure and temperature of the battery pack rapidly increase, so high-precision pressure and temperature modules can be used to monitor thermal runaway (BPS module) and give an early alarm; The olivine structure of lithium iron phosphate brings high temperature stability. Decomposition reactions rather than oxidation reactions occur in chemical reactions that are thermally runaway, resulting in relatively safe and slow gas production. In the later stage of thermal runaway, as the electrolyte sprays out, the aerosol concentration inside the battery pack will rapidly increase. Therefore, the aerosol concentration monitoring module can be used for thermal runaway monitoring (BAS) and early warning.

2. Reasons why lithium batteries may catch fire

If not properly maintained, lithium-ion batteries can pose some safety risks. The working principle of lithium-ion batteries makes them easy to burn. Therefore, manufacturers need to take certain safety measures, while users need to follow certain preventive requirements.

Generally speaking, the working principle of lithium-ion batteries is to store energy in chemical form and release energy in electronic form through a series of electrochemical reactions. To achieve this function, its interior is composed of a series of components. The negative electrode is composed of positively charged particles, while the positive electrode is composed of negatively charged particles. Place a liquid electrolyte solution between them, through which lithium ions flow from the positive electrode to the negative electrode. It is this movement of lithium ions that generates an electric current within the battery.

Another important component of lithium-ion batteries (often overlooked in concise descriptions) is the separator. It is a thin porous film used to isolate the positive and negative electrodes. In this way, the diaphragm allows lithium ions to move between the positive and negative electrodes without causing physical contact between the two electrodes (which can cause a short circuit).

Specifically, one of the main reasons for internal fires in lithium-ion batteries is damage to the separator separating the positive and negative electrodes. If the component fails, a short circuit will occur when the positive and negative poles come into contact. When this situation occurs, an electrolyte composed of a series of organic solvents is prone to heating up and eventually catching fire.

When lithium ions move between electrodes, they undergo so-called electrochemical deposition, resulting in lithium dendrites. Lithium dendrites are tiny dendritic structures that grow in the form of needle like protrusions. Lithium dendrites can cause perforation and damage to the diaphragm.

In addition to punctured and damaged membranes, another major cause of explosion and fire in lithium-ion batteries is thermal runaway. In this phenomenon, external high temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions inside the battery, further increasing its temperature. This self strengthening cycle that leads to overheating may ultimately lead to an explosion.

According to the report, lithium-ion batteries are currently supplying power to almost all electronic devices around us, including the vehicles we use. Therefore, taking preventive measures against safety risks is the primary task for battery manufacturers. Although small batteries are generally safe, due to their large production volume, the possibility of increased safety failure events will also increase. The widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles means that this trend will continue to rise.

To ensure a safer future, chemists and engineers can take various measures to develop lithium-ion battery technology. One solution may be to explore new methods to ensure its security, such as safer mounting technologies and packaging and shell systems.

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